Language-Restricted Iterated Function Systems, Koch Constructions, and L-systems

Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz and Mark Hammel
Department of Computer Science
University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
e-mail: pwp|


Linear fractals can be generated using a variety of methods. This raises the question of finding equivalent methods for generating the same fractal. Several aspects of this question have been addressed in the literature. These include:

Previous course notes introduced the notion of language-restricted iterated function systems (LRIFS's) encompassing CIFS's and MRFS's, and included a number of sample LRIFS's equivalent to L-systems with turtle interpretation. The present notes include the following further extensions to these results: Readers are advised that this work is still in progress, and consequently the results are not presented with the rigor expected in final publications.


Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz and Mark Hammel. Language-restricted iterated function systems, koch constructions, and L-systems. In New Directions for Fractal Modeling in Computer Graphics, SIGGRAPH '94 Course Notes. ACM Press, 1994.

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